In this chapter, the basic proofs of the Big Bang Theory will be examined, adhering to the process of putting forward and developing these proofs. In this way, it is aimed to portray the historical development process of the Big Bang Theory in the minds and to show the most basic evidence supporting the Big Bang Theory.
1. THEORETICAL EVIDENCE
LACK OF NEWTON'S TABLE OF THE UNIVERSE
Newton envisioned an infinite universe dominated by gravity. Because in a finite and stationary universe, the matter that attracts each other would stick and turn into a single component. However, it seemed that there was no such structure in the universe. Newton tried to escape this problem by saying that matter had spread into an infinite universe. However, this model of the universe also could not solve the problem; if each object has gravitational force on another object, why have the stars in the Universe been separated from each other for so long? Growing the universe infinitely didn't solve the problem; if stars in a certain region were to get a little closer to each other, the gravitational force between them would surpass the thrust of distant stars and stick to each other; if the stars were to get a little farther away from each other, they would get further and further away from the gravitational force. In short, growing the universe infinitely did not destroy the problems that the gravitational force would cause, even if the universe was infinite, everything would eventually turn into a single component with the force of gravity. And this is not compatible with the universe that we know has existed for billions of years.
Newton's idea of an infinite universe was difficult to show the start time of creation and led to uncertainty in the mind. But it was adopted by many theologians, including the church, that an infinitely powerful God could create an infinite universe. More or less all of the scientists and philosophers after Newton were under the influence of Newtonian physics and accepted the universe as infinite in size. This continued until the Big Bang Theory was put forward.
CORRECTION IN NEWTONIAN PHYSICS
Albert Einstein was also initially under the influence of Newton's physics; Einstein first came up with a stationary model of the universe in 1916. However, he immediately saw that a stationary universe would collapse into a single component under the influence of gravity. The “cosmic thrust” that Einstein put into his equations in order to connect the stationary universe model with his own theory was not based on any logical reason, observation, or theoretical requirement. The only reason Einstein came up with”cosmic repulsion " was because of Newton's belief in the infinite stationary universe model, which he thought was impossible to do otherwise. In the following years, Einstein will consider this idea the biggest mistake of his life, accepting the fallacy of the idea of a stationary and infinite universe.
In 1922, Aleksander Friedmann, a Russian meteorologist and mathematician, realized something that Einstein ignored and initially refused to accept; the universe could be expanding. Friedmann worked on the equations that Einstein came up with with his theory of relativity and found that these equations required the expansion of the universe. In this way, a dynamic universe was designed, not stationary; this model, as it eliminated the lack of Newton's system, made Newton's system even more perfect. So it became clear that the laws of attraction do not contradict the picture in the universe. The dynamism of the expansion of the universe prevented galaxies in the universe from turning into a single component.
Because this discovery was made with Einstein's formulas, it was also compatible with Einstein's physics. The contradiction in which Newton's laws of attraction fell was solved by Einstein's formulas, and it was formula-wise that there was no need for a sacred “cosmic repulsion”.
Belgian cosmologist Georges Lemaître found that the universe expanded independently of Friedmann during the same period. Lemaitre, like Friedmann, worked on Einstein's formulas, and he said that the result that these formulas would lead us to is that the universe is expanding.
According to the model of an expanding universe, expansion balances the gravitational force, so that matter in the universe is free from turning into a single component. The expanding universe becomes bigger at every moment than the previous moment. It also means that the universe, every moment before, is smaller than today. This means that long ago, the universe began from a single component. Lemaitre said this is the starting point of the universe. He believed he had found the perfect model: a model of the universe that God created as the “first atom” and continued to grow and expand as an oak tree grew from an oak palm and faithfully followed the mathematics of Einstein, the scientific genius of the era. So the Big Bang Theory was put forward.
Lemaître was a Jesuit priest and was the most important cosmologist of the Vatican Observatory. This idea, which he put forward on a “theoretical basis”, was very liked by the Catholic Church and supported Lemaître from the very beginning. Thus, the Catholic Church became the first to understand the importance of the Big Bang in religious circles (from the 1920s),and in 1951, the Church officially announced that this theory was fully compatible with the explanations of religion.
Einstein came up with his formulas thanks to the accumulation he inherited from Newton. Einstein's formulas allowed us to understand gravity more accurately than Newton's formulas. For example, Newton's formulas could not fully explain the orbit of the planet Mercury, while Einstein's formulas could fully achieve this.
According to Einstein, bodies with mass affect space by collapsing. Space is not just a space, it depends on mass and is affected by mass. This event, which seems difficult to understand, can be understood by analogy: let's think of a two-dimensional sheet representing space. Have two people hold the sheet nervously. Let's put an Apple on this sheet. The sheet immediately loses its tension and collapses around the mass. If we put a cannonball in place of an Apple, the sheet will collapse so much that it will be difficult to hold that sheet by hand. So as the mass increases; bodies, the surface is more skewed, we can come to a judgment in the form of collapsing.
According to Einstein's explanation of gravity, since the sun collapses space the most, we rotate around the Sun. Einstein's explanation shows that if the universe were in a stationary structure, all matter (stars, planets...) would converge at the bottom of the largest pit of time and space. Newton's physics explained how bodies attract each other, while Einstein's physics further developed it and revealed the mathematics of how a body with mass changes time and space.
MATTER-CONNECTING SPACE AND TIME
Einstein's formulas connected matter, space, and time. Before the 1920s, the view of “absolute space” and “absolute time” prevailed. It was assumed that space and time came from infinity and extended to infinity, and were never affected by the movement of objects and the force of gravity. With Einstein's” relativity theory", it was shown that the perception of space and time as separate and absolute beings was a mistake, and the concept of space-time began to be used. The structure of space-time affects the movement of bodies and the functioning of their forces, space-time is not only affected by this effect, but also by everything that happens in the universe.
just as we can't talk about events in the universe without the concepts of zay and time, in the “theory of relativity”, it is also meaningless to talk about space and time outside the boundaries of the universe. According to the conclusion, we can sum up the questions that are meaningless as follows: when the universe is expanding, it is pointless to ask what happens at the point where objects outside the universe do not reach. Since there are no bodies here, it is pointless to question the existence of space and time here. Or as for the moment when everything merges and space disappears when the expanding universe closes backwards; questions such as how many years have passed before that are also meaningless. Because as soon as there is no space, time also becomes meaningless.
REVOLUTION IN THE CONCEPT OF TIME
Just as Einstein's formulas lead us to the idea that space is expanding, they lead us to the idea that the concept of time will disappear as a result of the expansion of space being taken back to the very end-because space is disappearing. From this, we understand that the Big Bang is not only the beginning of matter, but also of time. Later, theoretical proofs based on mathematical equations made by Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking also revealed this.
The theory of relativity caused a great mental revolution by showing that time is not absolute, but that time changes depending on speed and gravity. Newton's concept of absolute time in physics and Kant's philosophy based on absolute time, his mental conflicts, Einstein's mental revolution lost value.
Experiments conducted in the following years also showed that Einstein was right. For example, two very sensitive atomic clocks were installed simultaneously, one inside a plane flying from London to China and the other on Earth. These clocks, set by John Laverty, were perfect enough to make only 1 second of mistakes in 300,000 years. Because the plane flies high, it moves at a lower gravity than on earth. Since gravity affects time, two hours are expected to show different times at the end of the flight. Since this difference was very small, it was only with such a precise watch that it was possible to detect this difference. Indeed, there was a difference of 1 in 55,000,000,000 seconds between the clocks. This, in turn, proved experimentally what Einstein theoretically said about the relativity of time. According to the old common belief that time is absolute and independent of gravity, such a thing could never happen. Many other experiments, such as this experiment, confirmed Einstein's formulas.
1-He solved paradoxes about Newton's laws of attraction.
2-Based on Einstein formulas (these formulas are supported by experiments).
3-Be showed that time also begins with matter.
4-He was solving the 4-Olber paradox.
5-Solving the paradox of Infinite attraction.
Thus, paradoxes in the cosmology of the universe were extracted, the laws of attraction became more understandable, and a perfect application of the mathematical formulas of relativity theory took place. For the first time, a scientifically serious explanation of the beginning of the universe has been made.
2-EVIDENCE OF EXPANSION
MENTAL REVOLUTION BASED ON THE TELESCOPE
The first evidence of the Big Bang, the “theoretical evidence”, was based on Einstein's formulas and showed that the universe could not be in a fixed and stationary structure, but rather that the universe was expanding. When this evidence was first put forward, observational and experimental data were not available, only mathematical-based principles that were theoretical were available.Moreover, when these principles were applied, problems such as the Olber Paradox and the infinite attraction Paradox were solved. The table in the universe was expressed mathematically, and the shortcomings in Newton's physics were corrected. This explanation misrepresented the idea that the universe is constant, stationary, and infinite.
As a result of scientific advances, especially with the discovery of the telescope, a new excitement began to look at the sky. With the help of increasingly powerful telescopes, new information was being obtained about the sky. By adding mirrors to the telescopes, Newton was able to get clearer images, further enlarging everything Galilee could see. The stars now looked bigger, scientists were trying to explore the properties of the universe and stars.
By 1920, the most advanced of the ever-evolving telescopes was at Mount Wilson in the U.S. state of California. Edwin Hubble (1889-1953)had obtained permission to work with this telescope. His work with this telescope has been qualified to make mental revolutions in our knowledge of the universe. This time, this mental revolution will be based on observational evidence.
HUBBLE'S OBSERVATIONS AND DOPPLER EFFECT
Hubble's observations with his telescope began when he first revealed that the number of galaxies in the universe was more than a hundred million. Of those who heard him say, “it's time for this man to retire,” the majority were.
In 1929, Hubble realized that distant galaxies were moving away from our Milky Way. No matter which way in space, the galaxies were moving away from each other. Hubble has achieved the same result in all the galaxies he has persistently observed. Hubble's discovery will also lead to a major mental revolution from his discovery of the numbers of stars in space. At first, the importance of this unexpected discovery was not well understood.
The best example of the universe Hubble discovered is a bubble that swells. Mark a dot on the surface of the balloon, and then randomly sprinkle other dots around it. As the balloon swells, it will expand, and the points on its surface will constantly move away from the first starting point and from each other. In short, it became clear that the universe was also expanding like a swelling balloon.
Hubble discovered that the universe was expanding using the Doppler effect. Doppler(1805-1883),originally an Austrian physicist, found the feature known as the “Doppler effect” in acoustic physics. How the wavelength changes with the motion of the sound and light source is explained by this feature. This is the same effect that causes a driver driving a car at speed to get caught on the traffic radar. Traffic police devices use the Doppler effect to show who is driving at a speed of how many kilometers.
We witness the Doppler effect every day, which depends on the speed and the relationship of the wavelength. Let's listen to the sound of a truck speeding past us. His voice is heard on a high curtain as the truck passes by us, and when it passes and disappears, the hearing curtain drops. The wavelength from the approaching body gets smaller and smaller, while the wavelength from the moving body gets bigger and bigger. This is the reason for the change in the pitch of approaching and moving objects. This applies equally to both sound waves and the wavelength from light. Because light is emitted in waves like sound, there is no difference between them. This feature has been proven by many experiments.
As the wavelength of the approaching light source decreases, it shifts towards the blue color in the light spectrum. As the wavelength of the light source that is moving away grows, it shifts to the red color in the light spectrum. When Hubble studied the light of stars using the Doppler effect, he always witnessed the light shift to red; that is, all the stars move away with the galaxies they are in. However, in the normal case, it was expected that light from the stars of some galaxies would shift to blue as a result of approach, while others would shift to red. Observations made many times after Hubble, the observations of Milton Humeson and many others, always confirmed this result. In 1950, the world's largest telescope was built at Mount mooring in America. Observations with this telescope also confirmed Hubble.
LEMAITRE AND BOXER HUBBLE
Edwin Hubble initially considered becoming a boxer. I wonder how many people he would have knocked out if he had insisted on this request and left his telescopic observations? However, it seems that his observations have knocked out a bunch of scientists who think that the universe is in a fixed, stationary structure. The idea of a fixed and stationary universe, stunned by theoretical evidence, has been knocked out in the face of Hubble.
All observations to date have confirmed Hubble's findings. But at first, atheists who saw the philosophical result that Hubble's findings would lead to resisted and did not want to accept that the universe was expanding. An expanding universe was a concept that atheist scientists connected to the idea of an unchanging, eternal, eternal and eternal universe could not accept. So when Hubble first revealed the observation data, it was those who underestimated it and ignored the conclusions it reached.
But this new invention had especially excited a scientist. This is Lemaître, whom we mentioned earlier. As we have seen before, Lemaitre and Friedmann are independent of each other, on a theoretical basis, who reveal the necessity of an expanding universe with mathematical formulas. Lemaitre was not only satisfied with the theoretical explanation, he also used Hubble's observational data, thus revealing the Big Bang in a way supported by both theoretical and observational evidence. As a result, the mathematical formulas calculated at the table (theoretical evidence) and the results obtained by looking through the telescope (expansion evidence) are combined.
Even Hubble himself discovered that the knowledge he had discovered was 20. and 21. at first he did not realize that it would affect the physics and philosophy of the century to this extent. It seems that the privilege of being the first to understand the importance of this belongs to Lemaître.
LEMAITRE, EINSTEIN AND HUBBLE MEET
As I mentioned earlier, Einstein, who understood that the universe was expanding from his own formulas, was not able to accept this theory at first. Because he believed wholeheartedly in Newton's infinite, stationary universe. One day, three distinguished people, Lemaitre, Einstein, and Hubble, met at the California Institute of Technology. Here, Lemaitre explained The Big Bang Theory step by step. He said that the beginning of the universe was a “first atom”, and then this singularity disintegrated and separated from each other, that the universe was constantly expanding, and if we wrapped it in reverse, we would understand the same result, that it was created on a day that was not before the universe. He did all the necessary mathematical calculations, combining Hubble's data, one of the listeners, with Einstein's formulas. When Lemaitre finished what he had to say, he could not believe his ears, Einstein stood up and accepted that what he heard was the most beautiful and satisfying narration he had ever listened to.
One of the first to realize this victory is the Catholic Church. Both being able to identify the moment of creation and receiving support from the scientist, who was considered the best of the time, was gratifying for the Church. The time that has elapsed and all the findings have confirmed the idea that the Big Bang is happening. The meeting at the California Institute of technology is really interesting in terms of the emergence of the Big Bang Theory. The father of the Big Bang Theory, Lemaitre, Einstein, who had a share in the mathematics of relativity theory revealed by the theory, and Hubble, who brought the theory to “observational evidence” with his observations, came together and approved the Big Bang.
Hubble and Vesto M., who worked with him at the Mount Wilson Observatory There is another important aspect to the findings of Slipher and Milton Humason. This, in turn, is the introduction of Hubble's law as a result of observations. This law states that the distances of galaxies from us are proportional to their speed. By using Hubble's law, the distance rates of galaxies are determined and it is possible to predict which Galaxy will be where at the end of a certain period of time. This calculation is due to the fact that there is a linear connection between the distances of galaxies and their speeds. For example, we can predict where a galaxy will be in a billion years. We can reverse this connection and apply it to the past tense. If we go backwards rather than forward in the timeline, we will eventually reach the starting point of the universe. So we can use Hubble's law to find the age of the universe. This means that the moment of creation is determined by specifying the time.
If the formula that gives Hubble's law is examined, it is seen that the age of the universe can be found by inverting the Hubble Constant. There are difficulties in calculating the Hubble Constant literally, which leads to the disputed age of the universe.
In calculating the age of the universe, scientists have tried to come to a conclusion by applying different methods independently of each other. But the results of all the research that many scientists conduct independently of each other vary between 10 billion and 25 billion years; none of the corrections and different calculation methods go beyond this range. It is observed that the results obtained in research conducted after the 1990s are around 15 billion years old. As can be seen, the age of the universe does not give very irrelevant results such as a trillion years, 10 quadrillion years, a thousand years, 100 thousand years, 10 million years in any research, all separate calculation methods result in a certain range.
THE UNIVERSE HAS NO EQUAL MOMENTS
The expansion of the universe, which was first revealed by mathematical “theoretical evidence”, was also supported by observational “evidence of expansion”, and then calculations were made within the framework of observations, findings and different methods, and the age of the universe was determined within a certain period of time. It is now debated not whether the universe is the beginning, but how to calculate the age of the universe in the most accurate way.
Recent observations have added additional evidence that the universe is expanding. According to the Big Bang, the universe is very dense at the beginning, and this density is constantly decreasing with expansion. Keep in mind that when we look at distant galaxies, we are actually looking at the past of the universe. Because the light of very distant galaxies comes from billions of light-years away, we see the way these galaxies were billions of years ago. By observing the state of the universe billions of years ago, we understand that the universe was denser at that time. This means that the Big Bang is confirmed once again. The universe, which was denser billions of years ago,has fallen to its current density as it expands.
The expansion of the universe at any moment is a change that deeply shakes the science of astronomy and the human mind. There are very few examples of such a change in the entire history of science. The change in mindset made by installing a sun-centered system instead of an Earth-centered system was a similar example of such a profound change. I think the mental revolution that the Big Bang will cause is even more important than that (although its value is not understood as much as the Copernican revolution).
A universe that grows and expands at any moment, herakleitos (m.He. 540-480) recalls the saying” you do not bathe twice in the same river". The expanding universe becomes a different universe at every moment, and we exist in a universe with different, new dimensions at every moment. No moment in this universe can be the same. For this reason, we can say: “the Universe has no equal moments.”
The idea of a great change is evidenced by observations and takes us far beyond what Heracleitus predicted. The expanding universe has even more important consequences than the ideas of dynamism and constant change that it evokes in the human mind. These are the results that this observation shows us about the origin and end of the universe.
3-EVIDENCE OF COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION
DISAPPOINTMENT AT THE DESTRUCTION OF THE IDEA OF THE INFINITE UNIVERSE
The time period when the Big Bang Theory was put forward was the years when Marxist atheism was on the rise and positivism was considered by many scientists to be the only valid philosophical system. At such a time period, the idea of “the universe that has existed since eternity”, which atheism accepted as the basic view and positivism was also very pleased that it disabled God, was collapsing. The idea that it was the beginning of the universe was described by atheist scientists as “disgusting”. For example, Sir Arthur Eddington clearly expressed his feelings: “ I find the idea that the universe is the beginning philosophically disgusting...” in such an environment, we see that ideological approaches and the psychology of atheism, rather than scientific concerns, play a role in the root of efforts to oppose the Big Bang.
Fred Hoyle sarcastically referred to the “Big Bang” on a radio show, arguing that the universe was separated and expanded while it was a whole. After that, the name Big Bang (Big Bang) became famous, and the name attached to this theory to make fun of it turned into its true name. Fred Hoyle defended the “steady State” model against the Big Bang. In the later pages of the book, this model will be examined.
WHERE IS THE FOSSIL OF THIS EXPLOSION
At the time of the Big Bang, it was revealed that many elements were formed within the life processes of stars. The contribution of Fred Hoyle and his colleagues in particular was great in this regard. The Big Bang explained where the hydrogen that can't be produced inside stars comes from, which makes stars form. In this aspect, The Big Bang complements Hoyle's incomplete findings, which were opposed to him from the beginning, perfectly replacing the explanation of the formation of the elements. According to the subatomic rule, an extremely high temperature environment was needed to create hydrogen. At the beginning of the Big Bang universe, he considered the existence of this environment, which was very high temperature and very dense.
Hoyle thought they needed to find an explanation for the problem outside of the Big Bang. As he continued to resist the Big Bang, he said: “If the universe started with a hot Big Bang, then it must be a remnant of the explosion. Find me a fossil of this Big Bang.”
As a result of Hoyle's taunts, the name “Big Bang” was settled, as well as the “fossil” approach. When “cosmic background radiation” is found in the future, many people will also call this radiation “fossil radiation”. Hoyle's challenge to find the “fossil” of the Big Bang has led to the discovery of crucial evidence supporting the Big Bang. Hoyle's objections were almost boomerang; instead of killing the Big Bang, he popularized it and ended the stationary state model.
GAMOW'S THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS
Cosmic background radiation was first put forward on a theoretical basis, based on mathematical calculations. Gamow and Alpher put forward their thesis, Alpha-beta-Gamma, on April 1, 1948. This thesis suggested that the enormous amount of energy that should have been at the beginning of the Big Bang would gradually decrease with the expansion of the universe, and that it would be possible to determine a temperature value equivalent to this energy even today.
George Gamow and his colleagues ' article described how atoms reacted to each other at the beginning of the universe in the light of recent findings in core physics, and showed that the temperature released during these reactions reached temperatures at an altitude of billions of degrees. It was shown by this study that a high-energy radiation (radiation) to which such a high temperature belongs completely filled the universe in the early periods, and even today a temperature value left over from this energy is in space. In short, Gamow has revealed that the “fossil” Hoyle put forward to mock should really be. In addition, it has been estimated that the temperature of this radiation emitted throughout space has fallen to minus 268 degrees (5 Kelvin absolute temperature value).
All the radiation that comes out after the Big Bang will have certain starting points inside the universe, and they will only spread out from those points. However, the most important feature of the radiation caused by The Big Bang is that it has spread all over the universe. In short, 1-the existence of radiation that has spread all over the Universe, 2-The temperature has fallen well, was revealed by mathematical calculations based on the Big Bang. I wonder if this radiation, which is ridiculed by saying” fossil", has been found?
By the 1960s, at Princeton University, Robert Dicke and his colleagues came to the same conclusion as Gamow and his colleagues. The beginning of the universe was very hot, in this case the universe was full of hot electrons and protons, high-energy photons. As the universe expands, this radiation(radiation) will cool down and can be observed in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum today. Princeton astronomers are said to have previously been unaware that Gamow and his friends had a similar prediction. At least it's certain that; Gamow and his colleagues predicted the existence of this radiation, but did not propose to investigate it experimentally.
Robert Dicke and his team were the first to attempt to find cosmic background radiation using special tools. Dicke and his colleagues Roll and Wilkinson were building a microwave radiation detector designed by Dicke in 1965. But it was others who made this discovery that they believed would win them a Nobel Prize. These people were two engineers who worked for the Bell Telephone Company in America, and their names were Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson. These engineers discovered cosmic background radiation by chance. When they made radio measurements, they found that there was an excess of radiation that they measured at certain wavelengths. The interference caused by this was interfering with the team's work. No matter what they did, they couldn't prevent this parasite. So, since they learned that the people most knowledgeable about radiation in space were Dicke and his friends at Princeton University, they called them. After hearing Penzias and Wilson's findings, Dicke and his team realized that they had found the radiation they were looking for.
So the “fossil” that Hoyle derided was found, and Dicke and his team didn't get the Nobel Prize, but Penzias and Wilson got the Nobel thanks to their invention. Many called the discovery of this radiation “conclusive evidence.” Defending the stationary state model that Hoyle advocated as a rival to the Big Bang became impossible with the discovery of “cosmic background radiation”.
As expected, the radiation found comes from all over the universe. The temperature of the radiation is -270 degrees (3 Kelvin). This value is very close to the -268 degrees (5 Kelvin) that Gamow's friends previously calculated. Alpher and Herman estimated its temperature in 1949, and insisted that it should be, when fossil radiation was found in 1965, they evaluated the event as follows: “everyone agrees that 1965 was an important year in the historical development of cosmology, and some even consider it the year of the birth of modern cosmology.”
4-EVIDENCE IN THE STUDY OF COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION
THERE MUST BE SLIGHT FLUCTUATIONS IN THIS RADIATION
Finding cosmic background radiation is a very important evidence for the Big Bang. Investigations of this radiation, on the other hand, will bring additional evidence for the Big Bang Theory. Cosmic background radiation is given names such as” fossil radiation“,” microwave background radiation“, or” Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation". These different names should not surprise anyone, because these different names all mean the same thing. After Penzias and Wilson's observation, Roll and Wilkinson of Princeton University conducted this experiment with precision instruments that they produced themselves. This experiment was the first of many experiments that confirmed the accuracy of the data Penzias and Wilson found.
After cosmic background radiation was found, this time scientists began to look for fluctuations in this radiation. These fluctuations were necessary for the formation of the universe. If the matter scattered around with the Big Bang were completely homogeneous, neither galaxies, stars, nor our world would be formed. For all this to occur, slightly more dense and slightly less dense areas were required. As matter came together and formed galaxies, there were large gaps between the galaxies. Even very small differences in temperature in the very early stages of the development of the universe, starting from a point, would explain how it occurred. Points that are slightly warmer will have more energy compared to points whose temperature is less than ten, so that more particles will be formed in hot spots compared to colder areas. This process would lead to the formation of galaxies and space.
THERE ARE FLUCTUATIONS
It was not possible for the detector Penzias and Wilson used to detect theoretically expected fluctuations in cosmic background radiation. For very sensitive measurements, it was necessary to eliminate the interference sources of the Earth's atmosphere. There have been efforts to load and send large instruments by weight and volume into helium balloons. Later the U2 aircraft were tasked with” Cosmic Background Radiation " Research. The cockpit had been built with a special compartment for carrying the sensitive detector outside the aircraft, even the plane's glass would prevent precise measurement. But they ultimately found that the movement of the aircraft and the time to make measurements in each region was limited. The plane, like a balloon, could not stand still at one point, although it could pass the same point many times, it would run out of fuel before measurements were completed. The only realistic solution was to use a satellite.
The expected breakthrough came by placing a vehicle on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, launched by John Mather in November 1989. The tool Mather developed was able to measure the temperature of cosmic background radiation with a sensitivity not previously reached. The exact value of the temperature was found to be 2.726 Kelvin at an uncertainty of only 0.005 Kelvin.
COBE stayed in space for three years, and the data he obtained in 1992 was also more than able to detect the existence of cosmic background radiation and coming from all aspects of space. The expected very small fluctuations were also detected. From the data COBE sent, the computer's picture also showed very small fluctuations in the map of the ancient universe. Pink and blue colors were added to the model on the computer to distinguish the warmer and colder parts of the picture. The ripples COBE discovered in the universe were re-examined and carefully checked, and the necessary data was obtained. The cosmic background radiation from the Big Bang process had very small temperature fluctuations, which were enough for galaxies to form and become what we see today. The Big Bang had once again won a big victory.
George Smoot made headlines all over the world when he published a pink and blue picture that his computer had drawn to show the waves in the universe. It had never been seen until that day that a cosmological observation came to such prominence in the media. Stephan Hawking's opinion of this finding was also on the same pages as the famous picture: “this is the greatest invention of the century, perhaps even of all time.”
George Smoot, project leader of the COBE satellite and astronomer at the University of California, is very interesting to explain: “this discovery is proof that the universe has a beginning."and he added:" It's like looking at God.”
SATELLITE, COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT
Indeed, the wonder of engineering satellites, the wonder of electronics computers, the high applications of mathematics have been combined, and all of them have supported the Big Bang. The picture in the universe is now more clear than ever before. Even those who revealed that there should be small temperature fluctuations that should be for the formation of galaxies, perhaps these fluctuations should be, did not expect. The “Alpha-beta-Gamma” thesis, which theoretically first revealed that there should be cosmic background radiation, has taken its distinguished place in history. Penzias and Wilson received the Nobel Prize in 1987 for their invention in 1965. The COBE satellite, which was sent into space with millions of dollars spent on measuring cosmic background radiation, measured “fossil radiation” very sensitively, with its temperature, with its very small fluctuations. Some physicists have considered this measurement the greatest invention of all time. Finding and studying cosmic background radiation is very important from the point of view of the Big Bang. But there will be more evidence that cosmic background radiation will present to us.
TEMPERATURE OF PAST COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION
As we have already said, one of the most important information taught by the Big Bang is that the universe begins in a very hot and very dense environment, and with constant expansion, this density and temperature drop. The temperature of cosmic background radiation is also constantly falling, and it is currently 2.7 .Equal to Kelvin. When we look at light from distant galaxies, we must remember that we are actually looking back. Light from distant galaxies comes from billions of light-years away. Maybe there is no Galaxy in that direction that we are looking at right now, but we are watching the light of that galaxy that set off billions of years ago. In short, we look back.
According to the Big Bang Theory, billions of years ago, the universe was denser and hotter, and if we can measure the temperature of cosmic background radiation in the galaxy we saw billions of years ago, we need to find that the temperature is higher than today. In the spring of 1994, researchers were able to make it happen. The temperature of cosmic background radiation in distant galaxies was 7.4 Kelvin, higher than the current 2.7 Kelvin.
This observation took place with the Keck telescope, this telescope is the largest optical device of its time. In 1996, the same group of astronomers measured the temperature of an even more distant galaxy, this time finding a value very little above 8 Kelvin. Then, a different group of astronomers scanned even more distant regions, revealing a temperature of 10 Kelvin. All of this data confirmed the accuracy of the Big Bang; the more distant we looked at our past, the higher the temperature we encountered. So our study of the history of cosmic background radiation also provided additional evidence supporting the Big Bang.
FUSION OF THEORY AND OBSERVATION
Cosmic background radiation and the evidence obtained from the study of this radiation of the Big Bang; first, on a theoretical basis, mathematical calculations were put forward. Later observations supported the theory. In this way, just as the universe was first put forward and mathematically proved on a theoretical basis by the fragmentation of a singularity, and then supported by observational data, the mathematical theory was embraced by observation in cosmic background radiation. Here's how we can sum up this hug:
1-on a theoretical basis: Gamow and his colleagues have revealed that the universe has gone from a very hot and very dense state to a less hot and less dense state, and that this hot and radiant first state of the universe still has a remnant as radiation.
On an observational basis: Penzias and Wilson found cosmic background radiation.
2-on a theoretical basis: Gamow and his colleagues showed that this radiation must have spread throughout the universe and calculated its temperature approximately.
On an observational basis: as Penzias and Wilson found, later confirmed by different observations, this radiation spread throughout the universe, and the account of Gamow's friends was very close to the temperature of its radiation.
3-on a theoretical basis: in order for existing galaxies to form, it was revealed that there must be fluctuations in the first temperature of the universe.
On an observational basis: in 1992, the COBE satellite detected temperature fluctuations of the first state of the universe. A photo of this surge was drawn with the help of a computer.
4-on a theoretical basis: since the history of the universe is warmer, the temperature of cosmic background radiation in the past should also be higher.
On an observational basis: in 1994, light from distant galaxies was studied, confirming that the cosmic background radiation of the past was higher. Later observations also supported this conclusion.
THE WALLS BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY, THEOLOGY AND SCIENCE
Scientific circles have understood the value of the Big Bang's theoretical, observational and experimental data. But unfortunately for the circles of philosophy and theology, the same cannot be said. There are many reasons for this, but one of the reasons for this is that although the theory was put forward in the 1920s, new evidence was still obtained in the 1990s. It takes time for all this evidence to pass from the arenas of physics, astronomy to the arenas of philosophy and theology, and to resonate in these arenas. Unfortunately, the positivist understanding of science has built a wall between physical science and philosophy and theology, and today's understanding of science is widely positivist. Since philosophers and theologians also accepted this wall of poztivism, those who collectively look at the findings of Philosophy, Theology and science and evaluate them together remained in the minority. Later in this study, I will try to show why this minority should multiply.
5-EVIDENCE IN THE AMOUNT OF ELEMENTS
EVIDENCE IN THE AMOUNT OF HYDROGEN
We determine the ratio of substances in space thanks to the “Fraunhofer lines” found by Fraunhofer. The decomposition of light in the color spectrum by refraction has been known since Newton. Fraunhofer saw a large number of lines in the rainbow in the color spectrum, some of which were dark lines and some were light lines. He couldn't figure out what caused them, but he found that the lines that each element produced were different. Although Fraunhofer could not comprehend the importance of these findings in his 1816 work; after that, in 1880, William Huggins discovered that these lines were almost fingerprints of elements.
By examining this fingerprint that comes from the light, we can understand what is in the source of the light. In this way, it became clear that The Sun and stars are not different from each other. All of them consisted mainly of hydrogen and helium; The Sun was a subset of the cluster of stars in the universe. The universe was a place of the same raw materials, functioning by the laws of gravity, in which all the stars and planets in it moved.
Thanks to the Fraunhofer lines, 73 percent of the universe was found to be hydrogen and 25 percent helium. This conclusion is evidence that supports the Big Bang. According to subatomic research, a high-temperature environment is required for the formation of a hydrogen atom from the particles that make up the atom. The first detailed foresight on this subject was revealed in 1948 by the work of Gamow and his colleagues. As Gamow predicted, the rapid cooling of the universe from a very high temperature is the explanation for the fact that protons and neutrons together form elements and 73 percent of the hydrogen in the universe. Hydrogen cannot be formed in the processes that form inside stars, whereas the Big Bang explained both how and how the hydrogen atom is formed.
EVIDENCE IN THE AMOUNT OF HELIUM
It is understood that helium occurred in the first moments of the formation of the universe with the Big Bang. The beginning of the universe is a hot mixture of protons, neutrons and electrons. As this mixture cools, nuclear reactions can occur. In particular, it has been calculated that neutrons and protons combine in pairs; these pairs also combine to form the nucleus of the element helium. Theoretical calculations have shown that there is 25 percent helium in the universe. Helium can also be formed in reactions inside stars. But these formations inside stars can't explain the 25 percent helium.
All observations have confirmed this data. For example, in 1999, American and Ukrainian astronomers, in their observations with the multiple Mirror and Keck telescopes, obtained a helium ratio of 24.52 percent after subtracting the helium ratio formed by stars. Astronomers who obtained this ratio by observing the oldest galaxies in the distance have once again confirmed the prediction of the Big Bang. Canadian astronomers who later published their work in the “Astrophysical Journal” in 2000 also achieved very close results. These studies have also shown that helium existed since the earliest bodies existed, that is, from the very beginning of the universe.
EVIDENCE FROM ALL OVER THE UNIVERSE
Let's remember once again that the Big Bang began from a single point in the universe, when a very dense and very hot environment expanded into a less dense and less hot environment. In this narrative, hydrogen and helium are also explained in the processes in this expansion. We found that an important feature of cosmic background radiation is its distribution throughout the universe. The same result is expected for hydrogen in the ratio of three quarters and helium in the ratio of one quarter formed by the expanding universe. The same ratio should be observed all over the universe with the expansion of the universe, because with the expansion of the universe, this ratio of matter is distributed all over the universe. The observations made with the conclusion that should be observed according to the Big Bang are fully compatible. No matter where we look at the universe, hydrogen and helium are the dominant elements, and about three-quarters of the universe consists of hydrogen and about a quarter of helium.
EVIDENCE IN THE AMOUNT OF DEUTERIUM AND LITHIUM
All deuterium (a neutron excess isotope of the hydrogen atom) and lithium, which exist in the universe, were formed in the first minutes of the Big Bang. The processes inside stars cannot form these atoms, on the contrary, they break up these atoms. However, the Big Bang explains the existence of deuterium and lithium.
The observations made with the Keck telescope and the Hubble Telescope are completely consistent with the Big Bang's prediction of the quantities of deuterium and lithium. For example, Vanioni Flam, Coc and Casse's research published in 2000 and many previous studies confirm this.
Until 1994, determinations of the amount of deuterium and lithium in the universe were made in relatively close Stars. However, since 1994, gas masses at a distance of 12 billion light-years (i.e. billions of years in the past) have been studied. Deuterium and lithium were also found in these. As predicted in the Big Bang, it has been proven once again that these elements have existed since the earliest times of the universe.
We can briefly summarize the results of this evidence as follows::
1-about three-quarters of the universe consists of hydrogen atoms, as predicted by the Big Bang.
2-about a quarter of the universe consists of a helium atom, as predicted by the Big Bang.
3-as predicted by The Big Bang, these proportions are detected in all directions of the universe.
4-only the Big Bang provides the very high temperature environment necessary for the formation of the hydrogen atom.
5-helium can form in stars, but the 25 percent helium ratio in the universe can only be explained by the Big Bang.
6-stars break down elements such as deuterium, lithium, the formation of these elements is only possible with the Big Bang.
7-the amount of hydrogen, helium, deuterium, lithium, elements detected in them by observing the most distant (oldest) galaxies and gas clouds in recent years also proves that these elements have existed since the earliest times of the universe. Just as predicted in the Big Bang…
6-EVIDENCE FOR THE GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF STARS FROM SUBATOMIC WORLDS
MULTIBILLION DOLLAR ACCELERATORS
In order to better recognize the subatomic world, accelerator tunnels have been built that simulate very high temperature environments that serve to accelerate subatomic particles. These experimental environments, where the world's most popular physicists work, are technological wonders built on a multibillion-dollar budget. The most powerful of these accelerators are CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, Fermilab in Chicago, America, and SLAC in San Francisco, America. The experiments conducted in these tunnels are consistent with all the evidence of the Big Bang and confirm the mathematical model of the Big Bang that makes up the universe in which we live.
The Big Bang says that only energy can exist at the initial temperature, that all subatomic particles are formed depending on the cooling stages of energy, and then gas clouds and stars are formed in a gradual developmental process. All phases of the formation of the subatomic world are explained due to this decrease in temperature, expansion, and decrease in condensation. Emergence of matter and antimatter; the emergence and destruction of electrons and positron (anti-matter of electron),proton and anti-proton, quarks and counter quarks are always explained according to the Big Bang model. In short, all the stages of the subatomic world and the present subatomic world of our universe are explained according to the Big Bang universe model, and the experiments carried out, especially in the accelerator tunnels we are talking about, confirm these explanations.
FIRST THREE MINUTES
It can be calculated by mathematical methods that the temperature is about ten billion degrees all over the universe about a second after the beginning of the universe. This is made possible by the highest applications of mathematics. Those who are not very interested in physics and mathematics do not understand how dare people talk about the first second of the universe. But the most famous books of the subatomic world convey these formations, starting from slices less than a second.
The power to make predictions expected from a good theory exists most perfectly in the Big Bang. Steven Weinberg, author of the book “The first three minutes” (perhaps the most famous book on this topic),which describes the gradual development of matter in the universe, gives an introduction to his narratives: “we are now ready to watch the cosmic flow of evolution in the first three minutes. Because events flow much faster than before than after, it may not be useful to show pictures lined up in equal time intervals, as in a normal movie. Instead, we will adjust the speed of our film to match the drop in the temperature of the universe; as long as the temperature drops to three times every time, we'll stop the camera and take a picture."Weinberg describes these stages in six movie frames. In order to demonstrate the power of prediction, which is the result of the mathematical model of the Big Bang, I will briefly summarize these six squares:
First film frame: the temperature of the universe is 100 billion Kelvins. The universe is like an inseparable soup of matter and radiation. In this soup, each particle collides very quickly with other particles. There are very few core particles in the first film frame. Approximately every billion photons or electrons, or neutrinos versus a proton, or a neutron. It is worth recalling that the measure of time when this movie frame is taken is about one percent of the second.
Second film frame: the temperature of the universe drops to 30 billion Kelvins. 0.11 seconds have passed since the first frame of the film. A small number of core particles are still not bound to form nuclei. The balance of the core particles showed a shift in the form of 38 percent neutrons and 62 percent protons.
The third film frame: the temperature of the universe drops to 10 billion Kelvins. 1.09 seconds have passed since the first frame. The universe is still too hot to challenge The Binding of neutrons to form atomic nuclei. Due to the decreasing temperature, there has been a shift from the balance of protons and neutrons to 24 percent neutrons and 76 percent protons.
Fourth film frame: the temperature of the universe drops to 3 billion Kelvins. 13.82 seconds have passed since the first frame. Although neutrons are much slower than before, they still turn into protons, now the balance is 17 percent neutrons and 83 percent protons. The universe is now cold enough to form various stable nuclei, such as helium, but this does not happen immediately.
Fifth film frame: the temperature of the universe drops to 1 billion Kelvins. A stunning event happens shortly after the fifth frame. The temperature drops to a point where the nuclei of deuterium (the isotope of the element hydrogen) no longer break down. However, cores heavier than helium cannot form in a perceptible number. 3 minutes and 46 seconds pass since the first frame (at which point Weinberg apologizes to the reader for 46 seconds. He emphasizes that the book would not have sounded good if it had been named 3 minutes and 46 seconds).
Sixth film frame: the desired point has been reached in the fifth frame, the basic elements are now formed. But to show what will happen, Weinberg takes the film one frame ahead. The temperature in this square is 300 million kelvins. 34 minutes and 40 seconds have passed since the first frame. The core particles are now connected in the form of helium or hydrogen (we mentioned this topic in the previous section). But the universe is still so hot that stable atoms cannot yet be formed.
As can be seen, thanks to the high applications of mathematics and experiments in particle accelerators, what happened in the first second of the universe described by The Big Bang is trying to understand. But it is unspeakable for a section of the universe of 10-43 seconds(the part of 1 second divided into 43 zeros on the back of 1). This time is called Planck time, because the laws of physics, such as the law of attraction, do not work in this time period, this time period cannot be described. 1032 Kelvin degrees (the Planck age) cannot be talked about, this is the temperature of the universe in Planck's time.
The fact that the formation of the universe from subatomic worlds to galaxies within the framework of the decline of temperature and density after Planck's time and the expansion of the universe can be explained in such detail shows how much the Big Bang has increased our knowledge. Planck time, much less than a second, is now a subject of debate. However, for thousands of years, the scientific world lacked a Cosmogony (explanation of the formation of the universe) in a scientific sense.
All experiments and calculations related to subatomic worlds support the Big Bang. All particles, from quarks to the formation of glutes, from protons, neutrons and electrons to neutrinos, find their place in the model of the Big Bang. As well as these particles, the formation and interaction of their counterparties with each other and the arrival of the present state at the end of a gradual process also find their place in the narratives of the Big Bang.
GRADUAL DEVELOPMENT OF STARS
Just as the Big Bang's narrative of the formation of the subatomic world in a gradual-developmental process is supported by observation and experiment, its progressive-developmental narratives about star clusters are supported by observation. Astronomers Star 1.Population, 2.Population and 3.They divide the population into three stars. The first stars to appear were 1.Populations are stars (as some do numbering based on the discovery of stars, they begin population numbering, the opposite of what we do). 1. Because population stars occur during a period when matter in the universe is denser, these stars are called “superdev stars”. The life of these stars is short, and they scatter all their matter into space with a big bang. Theorists believe that only a very small part of these stars can be observed. 2. Population stars, on the other hand, were described as follows, based on the gradual-developmental processes of the Big Bang:
a) these are the largest group of stars.
b) they are denser in certain regions (such as the regions of formation of young stars).
c) they contain large and small stars together in each mass.
All three predictions are in line with the observations made by astonomists in recent years. 3. If the population is stars (including our Sun),2. The population was formed from the scattered dust of stars. Many elements in our body, from elements such as carbon, calcium to elements such as gold and Iron, 2.The population is produced in stars. This information also shows a reason why living things were created 15 billion years after the creation of the universe. Because atoms such as the carbon atom, which are necessarily necessary for viability, 2. The population is produced in stars. Thanks to these atoms in the scattered dust of these stars, the region we are in has gained the raw materials necessary for life.
The gradual-developmental process of stars has been confirmed by observations, which is additional evidence supporting the Big Bang. The Big Bang describes the entire universe, from subatomic worlds to separate star populations, through a gradual-developmental process, a dynamic narrative that is completely contrary to views that explain the universe through static models for thousands of years. Observation and experiment are combined with mathematical calculations in these narratives, and it is possible that the universe is more understandable than ever in the history of science.